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(Text by Duane R. Hurst © 2013)

Click on a link to view its information and pictures.
Significant Event:
    Capture of Azov in 1696 AD
    Russo-Japanese War in 1904 AD

Main Cities: Moscow; Saint Petersburg
Time: 1721-1917 AD
Language: Russian
Personage: Peter; Nicholas II
Religion: Christianity
Related Country: Russia

Brief History:
      I have included only a few items concerning the history of this empire. A good source for more details can be found on Wikipedia or in history books.

Map of Russian Empire
Click Map to Enlarge
      Traditionally, Russia began with a Varangian chief named Rurik at Novgorod in 862 AD. Varangians were Viking imperial guards at the Byzantine court.

      The subsequent ruler, Oleg of Novgorod, founded the Kievan Rus state in 882 AD. The state disintegrated during invasions of the Mongols between 1237 and 1240 AD. Moscow eventually dominated the region and was the nucleus for the Russian Empire. Prince Dmitri of Moscow defeated the Golden Horde of Mamai at Kulikovo Field on 8 September 1380 AD, which was a turning point for Muscovite power against Mongol invaders.

      Tsar Peter is credited with forming the Russian Empire in 1721 AD. He modernized Russia, despite heavy resistance from landed nobility, peasants and the Russian Orthodox church. The state continued as an absolute monarchy until a revolution in 1905 AD, which resulted in a constitutional monarchy until a revolution in February 1917 AD. Russian participation in World War I led to general discontent and rioting. Tsar Nicholas II was deposed and executed, leading to a struggle for power between White Russian and Communist forces. The Communists defeated their opponents and formed the Soviet Union.

      In October 1853 AD, Russia declared war with the Ottomans and attempted to seize the Crimean peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion in the region, a coalition (Britain, France and Sardinia) helped the Ottomans. Russian forces destroyed an Ottoman fleet at Sinop, but eventually lost a fortress at Sevastopol in the battle of Malakoff in September 1855 AD. The Black Sea became a neutral area. A British "Charge of the Light Brigade" during the battle of Balaclava was immortalized.

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst