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(Text by Duane R. Hurst © 2013)

Click on a link to view its information and pictures.
Significant Event:
    Battle of Gettysburg
    Battle of Trenton
    British Surrender at Yorktown
    Moon Landing
    Transcontinental Railroad

Main Cities: Dallas; Honolulu; Los Angeles; Miami; New York City; Philadelphia; Washington DC
Time: 1776 AD - present
Language: English; German; Spanish
Personage: Abraham Lincoln; Donald Trump; George Washington; John Kennedy; Joseph Smith
Religion: Christianity
Related Country: U.S.A.
United States of America Empire
Click Map to Enlarge

Brief History:
      I have included only a few items concerning the history of this republic. A good source for more details can be found on Wikipedia or in history books.

      Various native cultures (aka "Indian") flourished throughout the boundaries of modern United States prior to European colonization. Among them were the Mississippian (aka Mound Builders) and Wampanoag. Others included the "Five Civilized Tribes" (Cherokee; Chickasaw; Choctaw; Muscogee Creek; Seminole).

      European exploration and exploitation accelerated after Christopher Columbus "discovered" the New World in 1492 AD. Principle colonizing powers were England, France and Spain. Minor players were Netherlands and Sweden (see Map). Britain established 13 colonies along the east coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Among the early settlements were Jamestown and Plymouth. The Plymouth Puritans arrived aboard the Mayflower.

      In May 1754 AD, George Washington inadvertently ignited a war between England and France when his force ambushed and killed a French military officer during the Battle of Jumonville Glen. The French government claimed the officer was on a diplomatic mission and commenced the French and Indian War. Washington's mistake was mitigated after he extricated British forces under General Edward Braddock during the disastrous Battle of Monongahela in July of 1755 AD.

      British defeats (such as the Battle of Carillon) resulted in William Pitt becoming Prime Minister. He bolstered military forces in the Colonies, which led to the capture of Carillon (renamed Fort Ticonderoga) and a British victory at Québec in 1759 AD. A French victory near Québec (Sainte-Foy) failed to turn the tide, and France sued for peace. England received vast territory in North America, including Canada. French Acadians were deported to France or various of the 13 colonies.

      A series of progressively draconian tax and control measures caused colonials to resist British laws. The English mercantile economic system (similar to the so-called "free trade" practices of modern America) deliberately kept colonial lands underdeveloped and lacking important freedoms. One key event was the Boston Tea Party in December 1773 AD. The British king, George III, ordered a blockade of the port and quartered troops to ensure repayment of the destroyed tea.

      British general, Thomas Gage, ordered troops on an expedition to confiscate weapons at Concord, Massachusetts. They fired upon local minutemen at Lexington, which precipitated open warfare with Great Britain. Local militia inflicted heavy casualties during the Battle of Bunker Hill, which actually occurred on Breed's Hill. The British found it difficult to believe American patriots could ever be effective soldiers.

      Congress appointed George Washington to command all military forces. He fortified Dorchester Heights with Ticonderoga cannons, forcing Gage to leave Boston. Washington later lost the Battle of Long Island and abandoned New York City. American forces also suffered defeat during a campaign against Québec in Canada. On 28 June 1776 AD, Henry Clinton suffered a defeat at Sullivan's Island (aka Fort Moultrie). A committee drafted a Declaration of Independence and on July 4, 1776 AD, Congressional leaders signed the Declaration. Thomas Jefferson wrote it and later became the third President of the new nation.

      Washington made a bold decision to cross the Delaware River and scored two crucial winter victories at Battle of Trenton and Battle of Princeton. His army later endured a harsh winter at Morristown and another one at Valley Forge. Despite brutal conditions, troops supported Washington, knowing that he prayed for them. A turning point in the war was the surprising American victory at Saratoga in October 1777 AD. General John Burgoyne surrendered to the incompetent Horatio Gates, who claimed credit for the battle achievements of Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan. This helped Benjamin Franklin to convince the French king to ally with the Americans against England. On 28 June 1778 AD, Washington's forces exhibited professionalism at the Battle of Monmouth.

      After the American surrender at Charleston and Gates' disastrous defeat at Camden, the British under Charles Cornwallis occupied much of the southern colonies. Washington assigned Nathanael Greene to oversee forces in the region. Greene fought a successful battle at Guilford Courthouse and Morgan achieved a spectacular victory at Cowpens, destroying the forces under notorious general Banastre Tarlton.

      Washington made a bold move to march a large force from New York City to conduct a siege of British troops at Yorktown. A French fleet defeated British vessels in the Battle of the Chesapeake. Without support from Clinton in New York, Cornwallis ordered the British Surrender. Britain capitulated and recognized independence of the United States of America with the Treaty of Paris on 3 September 1783 AD. Congress later ratified a Constitution for the new nation.

WAR OF 1812: (1812-1815)
      On 4 July 1803 AD, Napoléon sold the Louisiana Purchase to the United States. President Jefferson's purchase doubled the nation's territory. A ceremony on 10 March 1804 AD held at New Orleans marked the official transfer.

      The British navy routinely impressed men (another form of slavery), including American seamen. This practice, economic factors and British support to Indian raids throughout the western borders, led to war on 1 June 1812 AD. An invasion into Canada failed with battles such as at Queenston Heights. American forces won victories at Lake Erie and the Thames.

      On 24 August 1814 AD, British troops burned the White House and captured the City of Washington. They later won a Battle of North Point but failed to take Fort McHenry at Baltimore. Upon seeing the flag still waving, Francis Scott Key wrote words for what later became the national anthem. The British withdrew and attempted to seize New Orleans but General Andrew Jackson decimated their troops in the Battle of New Orleans.

      In December 1675 AD, New England Puritans fought the King Phillip's War, considered the first war between native North American tribes and English settlers. Chief Pontiac urged war against the British in North America (1763-1766 AD). It failed largely due to the standard British policy of "divide and conquer," which they learned from the writings of Julius Caesar.

      The U.S. government routinely negotiated and violated every treaty made with Native Indian tribes. During the American Revolution, colonists of the Sullivan Expedition burned over 40 Iroquois villages. In 1773 AD, Daniel Boone led settlers into Kentucky. Such encroachments led to the Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794 AD), the Northwest Indian War (1785-1795 AD) and the Creek War (1813-1814 AD).

      President Jackson's actions precipitated the Black Hawk (1832 AD) and Second Seminole (1835-1842 AD) wars. He also exiled the Cherokee and other tribes from their lands to placate southerners and to ensure his reelection. The action resulted in a Trail of Tears in 1838 AD, during the administration of President Martin Van Buren.

      American settlers and cavalry encroached on Indian lands west of the Mississippi River. Fur trappers and hunters jeopardized the traditional Indian buffalo hunting. Prospectors swarmed onto Indian lands, seeking gold at Sutter's Mill in the California Gold Rush (1848 AD), at Pike's Peak (1859 AD), Montana Gold Rush at Helena (1862-1863 AD), and the Black Hills (1875-1878 AD). Violation of treaties with the Sioux and other Indian tribes at the Black Hills resulted in the Little Big Horn Battle, where George Custer and his men died while attempting to ambush an Indian camp in Montana.

      In 1820 AD, Joseph Smith Jr. experienced a personal manifestation from God the Father and Jesus Christ in a grove of trees near his home in Manchester, New York. He received gold plates from a resurrected man, the "angel" Moroni, and translated the record, which was published as the Book of Mormon.

      Under direction from Jesus Christ, Joseph restored Christ's ancient church on April 6, 1830 AD. Opponents derided believers as "Mormons," but members of the church embraced the term. They later settled at Kirtland, Ohio. Members also settled and were later mobbed in Missouri and Illinois. A mob murdered Joseph and his brother while they were under government protection in Carthage Jail on June 27, 1844 AD.

      Brigham Young succeeded to Joseph and led church members along the Mormon Trail. They settled in the Salt Lake area and Brigham colonized 350 towns, more than anyone in history.

      Many settlers from the United States accepted Mexican land grants to settle in Texas. A government agent, Stephen Austin, helped them settle and later played a role in gaining independence from Mexico. President Santa Anna used force against Texan revolutionaries in 1836 AD in a Battle of the Alamo. However, he lost the Battle of San Jacinto to Sam Houston and recognized Texan independence.

      On 25 April 1846 AD, the United States declared war on Mexico and invaded with several armies. General Zachary Taylor won a battle at Monterrey. Further south, General Winfield Scott conducted a successful campaign from Veracruz, which culminated in the Battle of Chapultepec. Early in 1848 AD, Mexico surrendered a vast amount of territory, including California. The Mormon Battalion made the longest military march in US history to help seize San Diego.

CIVIL WAR (1861-1865 AD):
      A "Civil War" erupted between northern and southern states chiefly over "States Rights." The slavery issue was an ancillary issue. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Other southern states soon followed and their troops fired upon Fort Sumter in Charleston. (See Confederacy State Flags.)

      Lincoln sought to maintain the Union, against British and international banker attempts to fragment the nation. Lincoln adopted the Anaconda Plan to blockade southern ports. The south used blockade-runners, such as the Alabama, to thwart the north. They also built innovative ships: the submarine Hunley and the ironclad Virginia, which fought the northern Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads in March 1862 AD. Ironclads played a key role in the battles of Fort Henry, Island Number Ten, and Mobile Bay.

      On 21 July 1861 AD, ill-prepared armies of north and south clashed in a Confederate triumph at Manassas (aka Bull Run). General Robert E. Lee subsequently led the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee's most competent subordinate was Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. Lee easily thwarted George McClellan's incompetently run Peninsula Campaign.

      Southern Victories included: Valley Campaign (March-June 1862 AD); Second Bull Run (August 1862 AD); Fredericksburg (December 1862 AD); Chickamauga (September 1863 AD); Chancellorsville (September 1863 AD); Wilderness (May 1864 AD).

      Northern Victories included: Fort Donelson (February 1862 AD); Shiloh (April 1862 AD); New Orleans (April 1862 AD); Antietam (September 1862 AD); Stones River (December 1862 - January 1863 AD); Gettysburg (July 1863 AD); Vicksburg (July 1863 AD); Missionary Ridge (November 1863 AD); Franklin (30 November 1864 AD); Nashville (15-16 December 1864 AD).

      After a series of incompetent or ineffectual commanders, in March 1864 AD, Lincoln appointed General Ulysses S. Grant to direct all northern armies. Grant relentlessly attacked Lee's army in Virginia, while assigning subordinate generals to capture wide areas in other theaters. General William Sherman seized Atlanta and conducted a destructively successful March to the Sea. Grant conducted a lengthy siege at Petersburg and eventually and compelled Lee's surrender at Appomattox on 9 April 1865 AD. A reunited nation mourned Lincoln's assassination by John W. Booth on 14 April 1865 AD.

      The United States continued its territorial expansion from the Louisiana Purchase to seizures during the Spanish-American War in 1898 AD. Battles at Manila Bay and San Juan Hill helped America take Spanish overseas possessions such as Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The war later helped Theodore Roosevelt become president. Other acquisitions were the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867 AD and annexation of Hawaii in 1898 AD.

      In November 1910 AD at the Jekyll Island Club, the government was duped into surrendering economic autonomy to form a "Federal Reserve System," which the notorious Rothschild and other international bankers in America and Europe controlled. Such people bankrolled all sides in modern wars and encouraged warfare to promote their "New World Order" (modern-day version of the Gadianton Band and other ancient secret combinations). World War I (28 July 1914-11 November 1918 AD) weakened England and onerous reparations set the stage for a Nazi rise in Germany. The war also ended the empires of Austria-Hungary and Ottoman.

      Governments utilized methods of mass killing and high-technology weapons, such as the airplane, submarines and tanks. Battles engaged massed attacks against machine-guns, such as at Ypres and Verdun. After the war, many states joined the League of Nations, but awake Americans rejected the European and international banker-sponsored organization.

      On 7 December 1941 AD, Japan launched a surprise attack against US naval forces at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Japanese forces also attacked US territory in Guam, Philippines and Wake Island. They likewise invaded Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Siam and Singapore. Congress declared war on Japan and Nazi Germany, joining Great Britain and other allied nations of World War II.

      President Franklin Roosevelt emphasized defeating Germany and Fascist Italy. Military leaders and the public pushed for war in the Pacific simultaneous with the European front. Top commanders included: Chester Nimitz; Douglas MacArthur; Dwight Eisenhower; and George Patton.

      Significant US battles in Europe: Operation Torch; Sicily invasion; Italy invasion; D-Day invasion of France; Operation Dragoon; Battle of the Bulge; Germany invasion.

      Significant US battles in the Far East: Corregidor; Java Sea; Coral Sea; Midway (turning point in the Pacific war); New Guinea; Solomon Islands; Guadalcanal; Burma; Saipan; Philippine Sea (aka "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot"); Leyte Gulf; Philippines; Iwo Jima; Okinawa.

      War in Europe ended on 11 May 1945 AD, when the last German army surrendered at Prague. On 6 August 1945 AD, the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. A second atomic bomb exploded over Nagasaki on 9 August. War in the Pacific ended on 2 September 1945 AD with the surrender of Japan.

      Despite organization of the United Nations, US military forces fought wars in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. A generally docile and emasculated citizenry accepted growing police-state measures following a false-flag attack. An ineffectual Congress and a series of puppet presidents prepared the nation for a "New World Order," designed to obviate the Constitution and its Bill of Rights. Donald Trump became president in 2016 AD and attempted to reverse the tide towards a Rothschild-dominated kleptocratic rule. However, many deluded leftists and neocon traitors actively resisted a return to constitutional government. They supported a thoroughly corrupt and dishonest Hillary Clinton and a treasonous Barack Obama.

© Page Publisher: Duane R. Hurst